Lens Types Refer to different focal lengths of lenses
Normal, Wide & Telephoto
A normal lens yields an image that has a naturalistic perspective.
A telephoto lens magnifies an image.
A telephoto lens 70-150+ focal length can magnify an image that is far away. I'm sure you have seen gigantic lenses on the sidelines of sports events, those crazy focal lengths allow photographers to get a close-up of an athlete from great distances.
A telephoto lens also creates a shallow depth of field (the distance between the nearest and farthest subjects in a frame that appear acceptably sharp.)* The greater the focal length of the lens, the less depth of field.
Film shot with a telephoto lens also appears more 2-dimensional, because the distance is compressed within the lens. Faraway objects appear similar in size to closer ones.
Another thing to watch out for is camera shake. If your image is magnified, that means any little shake or movement of the camera will be exaggerated as well. With many telephoto shots, a tripod is necessary.
A wide angle lens is usually 1/2 the focal length of a normal lens.
The effects of the wide angle lens are basically the opposite of a telephoto lens: they create images with more depth of field, aren't the best for portraits, and decrease camera shake.
A wide-angle lens can show more image area and suggest the spaciousness of what you are shooting. It allows you to fit more into the frame.
A wide-angle lens also causes distortion where objects closer to the camera appear larger while ones further away seem smaller. As you can imagine, this effect isn't awesome for portraits.
Let's look at portraits ranging from wide to telephoto
Wide angle lenses are perfect for some portraits:
Citation: Wikipedia contributors. "Depth of field." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 14 Sep. 2017. Web. 16 Sep. 2017